One such example is a course at the University of Alberta U of A , Canada, entitled EDFX Global Citizenship Field Experience in Ghana , which was initiated in as a way to broaden pre-service teachers' horizons and educational experience by living and volunteering in Ghana for one month. The course was designed "to provide a bridge between the theory and practice of global citizenship education" Richardson, De Fabrizio, Ansu-Kyeremeh, , p.
Following a one or two week orientation in Edmonton, the students travel to Ghana for four weeks where they engage in seminars, workshops, open dialogues as well as a formal teaching component of classroom observation and assistance in schools in the capital city, Accra and in Atwima Apemanim, a small village in central Ghana. Experiential learning, in the forms of community service learning and cross-cultural exchanges, are featured consistently in the literature as a way to develop global citizenship.
Davies suggests "if pupils are to be educated in and for global citizenship this suggests that they should experience democracy and human rights in their daily lives at school — and not just be told about it" p. At James Madison University in Virginia, USA, a course entitled Global Citizenship in a Service-Learning Context in Dominican Republic was developed to give students the opportunity to engage in one or two intensive service-learning projects over a four-week period in the Dominican Republic.
The course seeks to address definitions and issues of global citizenship, development and service through the use of service-learning James Madison University, Working with both American and Dominican professionals, students experience and learn about contemporary social, political, cultural and economic conditions within the Dominican Republic through structured outings, cultural events, guest speakers, course readings and assignments.
Also through ongoing structured reflection exercises, students are led to discover, articulate, integrate and act on what they learn from their experiences. GCE programs have also emerged through partnerships with non-governmental organizations, development and social justice focused organizations, and with other academic institutions.
The University of Guelph offers a Guelph Global Learner Program , which was developed through a partnership with Canada World Youth to provide international volunteer and learner programs for students during the spring semesters. Through various volunteer placements in countries such as Costa Rica, Peru, Ecuador, Botswana and Benin, students earn academic credit towards their program of study. As part of the requirement for academic credit, students organize campus activities upon their return to Guelph.
These activities, coordinated by the Global Learners, framed as "Global Citizenship activities," aim to promote international understanding on campus. The program coordinators believe that the Global Learners Program "is an opportunity for students to apply their theoretical knowledge in an international context and to increase global citizenship across campus" Guelph University, The development of global citizens through experiential learning and studying abroad has increasingly become a priority of higher education Lewin, These rationales are reflected in many of the institutional policy statements, such as FDU's mission statement that educating for global citizenship is important in helping students to "lead and prosper in the global marketplace of ideas, commerce and culture," and UCL's statement that global citizenship is important for "entrepreneurship" and "professional mobility.
The branding of these activities as global citizenship education, however, is a contested topic that needs serious consideration. While education abroad programs claiming to educate for global citizenship have gained prominence, they have been challenged by a number of studies and critical appraisals Zemach-Bersin, ; Andreotti, ; Lapayese, ; Moffatt, , which purport that many of the GCE programs that send students abroad require particular forms of economic, cultural, and social capital that preclude the majority of students from participating.
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In researching global citizenship and study abroad programs in the United States, Zemach-Bersin found that students of colour and lower socio-economic status were drastically underrepresented. Moffatt confirms this trend with data from Canadian university study abroad programs, stating that " This poses a deep and widening tension in the field where administrators and educators want to create opportunities for students for international learning, but they risk reproducing the issues they intend to address, such as access and participation in programs because of high fees and time constraints, as well as host selection due to safety concerns and partnership policy.
The creation of global citizenship courses and certificates in global citizenship presents another way post-secondary institutions are formalizing and organizing GCE on their campuses. As discourse surrounding the knowledge economy becomes more closely tied to the functioning and purposes of higher education Peters, ; Davidson-Harden, , credentialing through certification of special knowledge, skills, and attributes KSAs has become more pronounced.
Global competence and intercultural skills, for instance, are commonly cited as indicators of global citizenship learning. Hunter et al. Through interviews with managers of transnational corporations, international educators, UN officials, intercultural trainers and foreign government officers, they found that a globally competent person "must be able to identify cultural difference to compete globally, collaborate across cultures, and effectively participate in both social and business settings in other countries" p.
The authors suggest that current "global citizen-global competence curriculum" should be reconsidered based on these findings and these identified KSAs should be implemented into university curriculum p. The discourse of competency and competition indicate the intensifying neoliberal climate in higher education.
In policy and practice, GCE has emerged to challenge the economic foci and also, as the Hunter et al.
Design Innovation & Citizenship
With respect to global citizenship certificates, many are developed within small institutions that have the administrative capacity to resource and track them. At Lehigh and Drake Universities, both small American liberal arts colleges, each institution has developed a global citizenship program, which offers students a cross-college, co-curricular certificate in Global Citizenship. Similarly at Drake, through the successful completion of a variety of academic and co-curricular requirements, such as specific courses, language study, study abroad, service learning, and a capping paper, students receive a certificate in Global Citizenship which appears on the students' transcripts.
In larger institutions, the development of cross-disciplinary certification is less straightforward. Crossing and including various disciplines makes this certificate the first of its kind on the U of A campus.
Currently, it is being envisioned as a nine-credit equivalent of three courses certificate. With the exception of one required interdisciplinary course INTD , which surveys the theoretical and contextual landscape of global citizenship, students can take two optional courses from a list of complementary global citizenship courses already offered by various faculties and schools across the campus.
In creating this certificate the project endeavours to facilitate the development of transdisciplinarity in its approach to global citizenship GCCD. An innovative interdisciplinary course at the University of British Columbia called Perspectives on Global Citizenship engages with global citizenship in the virtual world.
The course was designed to complement a student's major and challenge them to consider the roles and responsibilities that each has within their political, social, cultural, and professional contexts. Modules in the class cover a range of topics including global health, world trade, nationalisms, global inequality and injustice, climate change, amongst others.
As one of the facilitators of the course, Swanson notes that the online discussion provides a transnational platform to invite and encounter the "dilemmas, ambiguities, and possibilities of global citizenship" p. In the Primary Education Program in the School of Education at Roehampton, UK, a Global Citizenship course was designed for pre-service teachers to explore different concepts of global citizenship and its place and value in the curriculum. Considering topics such as geographical aspects of development education, human rights education, multicultural education, citizenship education and education for sustainable development, the course aims to provide a context for students to examine their own knowledge, skill, values and attitudes, and those of others in relation to contentious issues such as rights and responsibilities, power, racism, diversity, and poverty.
The module incorporates service-learning activities such as developing workshops for Year 8 pupils on Global Citizenship at a local public school. Issues covered by the Hope students include women's rights, values and perceptions, conflict resolution, poverty in the UK, fair-trade, children's rights, and sustainable development.
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According to several reports and studies conducted by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada AUCC , internationalization is of increasingly high importance in post-secondary education. What can be gathered from this study is that an increased emphasis on sending students and faculty members abroad will develop international and intercultural knowledge, skills, and competencies, thus giving the university an internationalized dimension. Behind these motivations, however, are deeper rationales associated with investment in human capital for the global knowledge economy and workforce.
As Brustein notes, it is imperative for universities to produce globally competent students who have:.
As students have begun to seek global competencies, institutions have become more competitive to attract students by offering such programs. Knight confirms this observation by stating that traditional social, political, academic and economic rationales for internationalization have been increasingly influenced by institutions attempting to brand themselves and develop an international profile. She states that this shift is part of the race to "compete in a more competitive environment" p.
The rationalities embedded within these motives correspond directly with the relationship between post-secondary institutions and the knowledge economy whereby the projects and programs that are developed and undertaken in the name of internationalization contribute to the penetration of market logic into higher education and production of global workers and citizens Brustein, It is within this neoliberal policy context of internationalization that global citizenship education programs are emerging, serving to both challenge and strengthen the economic currents in higher education.
According to Sackmann , internationalization as a "space of movement" where transaction and communication take place across borders p. Among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD countries, the number of foreign students attending higher education institutions grew by 5. While the physical mobility of students and faculty has long been a strong focus of internationalization of higher education, there is a reluctance to look at the limitations and issues of these activities. Although experiential and international educational programs and activities are highly sought after by students and professors, only few will ever be able to participate as it requires capital of all forms -- economic, social, and cultural.
Another issue concerning mobility and international based programming is that the movement between the South and North is largely controlled by the North. Looking at the cost of some of these programs as well as the differential fees made mandatory for international students to attend universities, this particular demographic seem to be the only players invited to participate in this international game.
Empirical research has not only illuminated these trends, but also made deeper connections to the cultural, political and social implications. As a result of contradictory conceptions and enactments of global citizenship that emanate from various theoretical standpoints, Shultz ; warns that global citizenship educators must be conscious of the underlying assumptions that inform their practice so that their introduction to and engagement with global citizenship reflects what they intend to teach.
For instance, "if citizens of the wealthiest nations learn that their role as global citizens is to compete in a global marketplace, then the structures of inequality that keep members of less wealthy countries marginalized will be perpetuated, if not strengthened" p. As post-secondary institutions move toward increased expectation and engagement internationally, it is important to take a critical and reflective approach to fully understand what this engagement is intended to accomplish, and what the intended and un-intended impacts of these increased relations within the already unevenly internationalized and globalized world might be.
While the trend of increasing focus on educating for global citizenship at post-secondary institutions may be considered a uniform response to urgent global issues and contexts, this study that reviews policies and programs of GCE suggests that global citizenship is far from a uniform idea and, in fact, is a much contested term.
Educating global citizens: Organisational insights
However, there is a general consensus that higher education institutions have a role to play in preparing citizens that are informed and able to participate in our complex globalized and globalizing world. Global citizenship educators must grapple with and respond to the global unevenness of internationalization and globalization, the legacies of colonialism, and ideologies that would support a system that benefits the few at the expense of the many.
Many educators are relying on global citizenship education efforts to open educational spaces for working towards a more just and peaceful world. This study of current GCE policies and practices identified overt claims for global citizenship along with practices that served many other goals of education that we understand to be in tension with inclusive citizenship in an unevenly globalized world. While GCE programs may claim to be working for justice and inclusion, these claims mask more competitive projects of internationalization and marketization at the foundation of the program.
In order for global citizenship education to achieve its social goals in post-secondary education, it is important to develop a broad approach that is founded not only on common understandings but strives to build on disciplinary, interdisciplinary, and multidisciplinary and even to find Max-Neef's radical and ethically located transdisciplinarity programs that might generate a creative and emergent pedagogical space for transformed social realities in a globalized world.
GCE can be a call to change the way things are done; to strive toward education at its best.
Educating Students to Foster Active Citizenship | Association of American Colleges & Universities
Education that is based on postcolonial inquiry, critical thinking, and deep engagement that results in changes in learning, action, and both local and global social conditions. This education does not belong to any one faculty or discipline or to either formal or non-formal education but should be embedded within each in ways that extend and support the work of global citizenship education. This approach to education necessitates the building of relationships and knowledge networks that engage with differences, with both individual and social needs of society, and from local and global perspectives.
It necessitates finding and naming what is under the umbrella of GCE to ascertain if what is hidden might be undermining what is overt in GCE efforts. Liberal education and global citizenship: The arts of democracy.
Abdi, A. African education and globalization: An introduction. Abdi, K. Dei Eds. Ambitions and constructions of global citizenship education: Critical readings from the University of Alberta. May 18, Educating for human rights and global citizenship.
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Albany, NY: Suny Press. Educating for social justice and global citizenship: Helping students make local—global links on justice issues. Education for social justice: from the margins to the mainstream. Background papers. Canadian Teachers' Federation. Ottawa, CAN. Altbach, P.